The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services updated its clarifying questions and answers regarding the degree of coding flexibility that will be permitted during the first year of ICD-10 implementation.
The revisions, made July 31, were to the two questions focused on explanations for a valid ICD-10 code and definition of an ICD-10 family.
Q: What is a valid ICD-10 code? (Revised 7/31/15)
A: All claims with dates of service of October 1, 2015 or later must be submitted with a valid ICD-10 code; ICD-9 codes will no longer be accepted for these dates of service. ICD-10-CM is composed of codes with 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 characters. Codes with three characters are included in ICD-10-CM as the heading of a category of codes that may be further subdivided by the use of fourth, fifth, sixth or seventh characters to provide greater specificity. A three-character code is to be used only if it is not further subdivided. While diagnosis coding to the correct level of specificity is the goal for all claims, for 12 months after ICD-10 implementation, if a valid ICD- 10 code from the right family (see question 5) is submitted, Medicare will process and not audit valid ICD-10 codes unless such codes fall into the circumstances described in more detail in Questions 6 & 7.
An example is C81 (Hodgkin’s lymphoma) – which by itself is not a valid code. Examples of valid codes within category C81 contain 5 characters, such as:
- 00 Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, unspecified site
- 03 Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, intra-abdominal lymph nodes
- 10 Nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma, unspecified site
- 90 Hodgkin lymphoma, unspecified, unspecified site
During the 12 month after ICD-10 implementation, using any one of the valid codes for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (C81.00, C81.03, C81.10 or C81.90) would not be cause for an audit under the recently announced flexibilities.
In another example, a patient has a diagnosis of G43.711 (Chronic migraine without aura, intractable, with status migrainosus). Use of the valid codes G43.701 (Chronic migraine without aura) or G43.719 (Chronic migraine without aura, intractable without status migrainosus) instead of the correct code, G43.711, would not be cause for an audit under the audit flexibilities occurring for 12 months after ICD-10 implementation, since they are all in the same family of codes.
Many people use the terms “billable codes” and “valid codes” interchangeably. A complete list of the 2016 ICD-10-CM valid codes and code titles is posted on the CMS website at http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Coding/ICD10/2016-ICD-10-CM-and-GEMs.html. The codes are listed in tabular order (the order found in the ICD-10-CM code book). This list should assist providers who are unsure as to whether an additional 4th, 5th, 6th or 7th character is needed. Using this free list of valid codes is straightforward. Providers can practice identifying and using valid codes as part of acknowledgement testing with Medicare, available through September 30, 2015. For more information about acknowledgement testing, contact your Medicare Administrative Contractor, and review the Medicare Learning Network articles on testing, such as SE1501.
Q: What is meant by a family of codes? (Revised 7/31/15)
A: “Family of codes” is the same as the ICD-10 three-character category. Codes within a category are clinically related and provide differences in capturing specific information on the type of condition. For instance, category H25 (Age-related cataract) contains a number of specific codes that capture information on the type of cataract as well as information on the eye involved. Examples include: H25.031 (Anterior subcapsular polar age-related cataract, right eye), which has six characters; H25.22 (Age-related cataract, morgagnian type, left eye), which has five characters; and H25.9 (Unspecified age-related cataract), which has four characters. One must report a valid code and not a category number. In many instances, the code will require more than 3 characters in order to be valid.
Another example, K50 (Crohn’s disease) has codes within the category that require varying numbers of characters to be valid. The ICD-10-CM code book clearly provides information on valid codes within this, and other categories. And if in doubt, providers can check the list of valid 2016 ICD-10-CM codes to determine if all characters have been selected and reported. Examples of valid codes within category K50 include:
- 00 Crohn's disease of small intestine without complications
- 012 Crohn's disease of small intestine with intestinal obstruction
- 90 Crohn's disease, unspecified, without complications
To include the Crohn’s disease diagnosis on the claim, a valid code must be selected. If the paid claim were to be selected later for audit, the Guidance makes it clear that the claim would not be denied simply because the wrong code was included, so long as the code was in the same family. As long as the selected code was within the K50 family, then the audit flexibility applies.